Business Law Cases / AR Paper


 Part A

 Problem I

 Legal Resolution

 This case is devoid of legal grounds given that the advice from the supervisor was not in itself an illegal practice. Mr. Jones blatantly refused to conform to the usual practice that has been part of the maintenance exercise for decades. The New Jersey Whistleblower Protection Act protects employees from retaliatory acts by their employers upon reporting illegal or unsafe activities to the relevant authorities. However, sanding the axle sleeve was never a dangerous activity as evidenced by the successful flight after the fixing. Additionally, the fact that Mr. Jones reported directly to the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) formed under Federal Aviation Act was not wrong in itself but rather a violation of rules of procedure. The Railway Labor Act is known for providing the balanced legal criteria for resolving labor-management issues that involve administration of the contract, as well as collective bargaining. Thus, seemingly, Mr. Jones blatantly violated the conflict resolution procedure as outlined in the collective bargaining agreement.


 Ethical Resolution

 According to the free market ethics, alternatives in business decision-making that aim at profitability overrides any other goal of an enterprise. Similarly, utilitarianism asserts that an alternative is ethical if and only if it is likely to produce the greatest overall good, that is, its benefits must be greater than its costs. Moreover, resolution of Kant’s theory of consequences reaffirms that an action or practice is unethical if it lacks the crucial aspect of mutual benefit. Thus, from these ethical standpoints, the directive by the supervisor was meant to maximize profitability for the company (a moral decision) and did not only benefit the company but also the passengers since the plane took off as scheduled, there were no inconveniences on the part of passengers.

When an employee takes actions that are contra to the business’ interests, the supervisor should examine the possible legitimate protests that may be involved. The director should also consider the various aspects of insubordination and its correlation to misconduct that would finally determine the legality and legitimacy of his decision. On the other hand, in making sure that an employee’s protest of a business’s practices in a manner that does not jeopardize his/her position or compromise his/her values, an employee must abide by the grievance procedure as set out in the collective bargaining agreement.

Problem II

The fact that Mr. Hidalgo is an undocumented alien that gives him an unlawful status is irrelevant in respect of whether or not he entitled to back pay remedy. The Equal Protection Clause as anchored in the Fourteenth Amendment protects all people within the jurisdiction of the U.S. and this explicitly implies that even the unlawful or rather an illegal immigrant as Mr. Hidalgo are protected and are entitled to access to social and economic benefits while within the U.S. For instance, over the last fifty years, state and federal courts of the United States that made rulings validating various rights of illegal immigrants such as their right to sue both in tort and contract, bringing divorce actions, recover their workers’ compensation, and undergoing through the due process of law among others. Additionally, participation in the formation of trade unions is recognized by the U.S Constitution; thus, Mr. Hidalgo’s action was never illegal.

Mr. Hidalgo’s involvement in the Trade Union activities may be ethical and unethical depending on the various moral perspectives. In respect of the free market ethics, it was ethical for United Plastic to lay off Mr. Hidalgo given that the intent of labor unions for wage increment reduces the profitability of the business. Similarly, United Plastic’s actions were ethical as labor union’s fight for employee welfare does not produce greatest overall good according to utilitarianism. However, United Plastic’s action was unethical under Kant’s theory of consequences that pegs ethics to mutual benefit, since labor unions ensure the right for employees than that of the employer.

 The stakeholders in this situation are Mr. Hidalgo and United Plastic. My legal ruling is that United Plastic should give Mr. Hidalgo his back pay for laying him off.

 Impact of ruling

 The ruling will reaffirm to the public the constitutional recognition and protection of illegal immigrants regardless of the growing voices that are anti-immigrant compelling United Plastic to give Mr. Hidalgo his payback remedy. The decision will act as a warning to United Plastic’s future decisions regarding illegal immigrants just as Mr. Hidalgo.

 Suppose Mr. Hidalgo had been fired for reporting health or safety violations in the workplace, the whistleblower protection should have applied to him, regardless of his status an undocumented alien. The legal fact that his unlawful status is irrelevant according to the U.S Constitution. All whistleblowers are protected by the federal and state laws regardless of their legal status. Provided that the reported action or practice is illegal or unsafe, the laws protect whistleblowers from all forms of retaliation and discrimination.

 Part B


 Augmented reality (AR) refers to a boosted version of reality generated by technology to show digital information on the image of an object that is observed, viewed or seen with the aid of a device. Alternatively, AR refers to the kind of technology that is employed in the creation of AR. The technology has an inherent potential for transforming the education sector and seems futuristic due to the new dimensions that it has brought to learning. For instance, AR enables instructors and students to unlock or create phases of digital material in the physical world that is observable through devices such as an Android or iOS. The technology not only deepen learning through reading and listening but also through digital creation and interaction with the physical world. AR has various classroom applications that would include creating active learning experiences and redefining the learning space, especially in elementary schools. Augmented books have been on the rise and due to their interactive nature between the virtual and reality worlds. Technological advancements are likely to change perceptions of educational materials. For instance, the release of iPad has impacted the educational books with the majority of publishers starting to cooperate with the Apple in their bid to produce more mobile content. Moreover, the aspect of the transparent display is likely to improve the potential of AR in enhancing education experiences. Gamification is the use of games in education and with advancements in technology, it is expected to change as AR takes shape in the learning process. Gamification coupled with AR will enhance the learning experience and motivate learners to acquire knowledge in the most exciting ways. Besides, AR is expected to strengthen e-learning due to its potential for employing intelligent applications that can leverage large amounts of data for personalized experiences. Experts have predicted that soon, AR will replace the traditional screens such as those of phones, televisions, and tablets as the glasses would be adequate for attaining virtual reality. The application of AR is gaining momentum, and so does the traction of companies using AR. Enterprises that use AR include Green pub (advertising campaigns), SEFT (scanning brochures during trade fairs), Northern Lighting (scanning products catalog), and Siemens (showcasing products).

 Index Terms— Education, AR, books, publishers, classroom, gamification, AR Book, e-learning.